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Proposal and Implementation of Magic Bitboards in Shogi

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  • コンピュータ将棋における Magic Bitboard の提案と実装

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Abstract

In this paper, we present a technique to apply magic bitboards into Shogi. A bitboard is a bitset representation of a position suitable for efficient game-tree searches in two-player games such as chess. They have widely been used in popular strong programs in chess and Shogi. Magic bitboards are recent improvements that can efficiently calculate attacks with simpler data than those needed to be maintained in previous bitboard techniques. While magic bitboards in chess depend on the fact that a chess board can be represented in one 64-bit integer, a board of Shogi has 81 squares. Thus, we first developed a technique to calculate attacks of a board represented in multiple integers. Then, we show the effectiveness of our techniques by experiments using the state-of-the-art Shogi program, Bonanza.

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