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  • 保存および推移律の学習による変容
  • ホゾン オヨビ スイイ リツ ノ ガクシュウ ニ ヨル ヘンヨウ

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An experimental education was carried out to examine the following hypotheses.<BR>1) The acquisition of conservation of length, weight and liquid measure can be facilitated by an instructional procedure consisting of verbal explanation combined with manipulating concrete materials.<BR>2) Ss, who acquire consevation of one of these physical attributes by training, have a tendency to generalize this principle to the two other attributes.<BR>3) Ss who comprehend conservation of an attribute also grasp its transitivity simultaneously.<BR>Ss were 40 4-to-6-year-old children, who at the pre-training test had shown neither the symptom of conservation nor that of transitivity as to any of these 3 attributes. They were divided into 4 homogeneous groups with a C. A., of 5: 5 as a mean. Three groups were served as an experimental Ss (Exp. Gr.) Gr. 1 was trained as to length, Gr. 2 weight, and Gr. 3 liquid measure, respectively. The remaining one was a control group (Con. Gr.).<BR>Each child in each Exp, Gr. received two sessions of 10-15 min. individual tranining in two consecutive days. In these sessions the E. explained conservation based on various grounds, e. i., i) identity or the material without addition or subtraction, i i) empirical reversibility of any transformation, i i i) compensability of loss in one dimension by gain in another.<BR>Post-training test was administered to these Ss 3 weeks later.<BR>The results were as follows<BR>1) Hypothesis 1 was veriffied. Ss who were diagnosed as conservers at the post-training test were 9 in Gr. 1, 9 in in Gr. 2, and 8 in Gr. 3 in number. On the contrary, none of the Con. Gr. Ss answered all of conservation items. of any one attribute correctly.<BR>2) Hypothesis 2 was supported. Scores of Exp. Gr. Ss as to two attributes without training increased significantly, while those of Con. Gr. Ss showed no marked improvement.<BR>3) Hypotheses 3 also seemed tenable, because in the Exp. Grs. the number of correct responses on transitivity tasks increased significantly.


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