The Development of Work and Personality Studies : Generalization of the Thesis from Long-term Panel and Cross-national Surveys

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Other Title
  • 職業とパーソナリティ研究の展開 : 長期的パネル調査と国際比較にもとづく仮説の一般化
  • ショクギョウ ト パーソナリティ ケンキュウ ノ テンカイ チョウキテキ パネル チョウサ ト コクサイ ヒカク ニ モトヅク カセツ ノ イッパンカ

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Abstract

This paper reviews Work and Personality Studies, carried out by M.L. Kohn, C. Schooler and their colleagues since the 1950s. Their studies are based mainly on two series of surveys, that is, long-term panel surveys in America and cross-national surveys covering America, Japan, Poland and Ukraine. In this paper, we focus on the third wave of American panel survey and the cross-national surveys in four countries. In their work, Kohn and Schooler hypothesized that there were reciprocal effects between work and personality and examined this relationship (ex. Kohn and Schooler 1983). We, in this paper, call it Work and Personality thesis. In their subsequent studies, they have testified it repeatedly. ln 1994-95 the third wave of American panel survey was conducted. They found that their thesis is applicable to not only middle-aged but also elderly and also discovered thet reciprocal effects are found not only between personality and work but also between personality and activities in nonwork areas, such as leisure-time activities. That is, the American panel surveys expanded the subjects or arenas of the thesis. In the case of the cross-national surveys, the issue is whether the thesis is supported in four countries, regardless of the differences of culture, social systems or social stability. The results of these comparative surveys show that the thesis was robust. The thesis is applicable to diverse situations, such as Westerm and Eastern cultures, or capitalist and socialist societies. Work and Personality thesis has been supported consistently by both American panel surveys and cross-national surveys allowing us to say that the thesis is generalized.

Journal

  • 年報人間科学

    年報人間科学 26 19-36, 2005-03-31

    Sociology, Anthropology and Philosophy, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University

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