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A Study on How to Introduce the Energy Concept in American Elementary Schools : An Analysis of Elementary Science Textbooks and Teacher's Editions

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  • 米国小学校におけるエネルギー概念の導入に関する研究 : 米国の小学校理科教科書,教師用指導書を事例として
  • ベイコク ショウガッコウ ニ オケル エネルギー ガイネン ノ ドウニュウ ニ カンスル ケンキュウ : ベイコク ノ ショウガッコウ リカ キョウカショ,キョウシヨウ シドウショ オ ジレイ ト シテ

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Abstract

<p>The energy concept is regarded as one of four main concepts from elementary to secondary school levels at the newly revised Course of Studies in Japan. However it was difficult to teach the energy concept by using the word "energy" in the elementary school, because the concept was first introduced in the 3rd grade of the junior high school. On the other hand, the concept was introduced in lower grade in the elementary school in the U.S. In this study, we analyzed the way that the energy concept was introduced in the elementary school, based on the textbooks and teacher's guidebooks. As a consequence, the following findings were obtained: (1) The energy concept and the definition were introduced in the lower grade of the elementary school, according to National Science Education Standards and states' standards, intuitive understandable subject matters for children, of light, heat, sound. (2) The definition of "energy", preservation of energy, its various forms, its transfer, potential energy and kinetic energy were taught spirally after 3rd grade. (3) The teacher's guidebooks proposed the seven viewpoints for teaching energy in elementary school, and the successful strategy to meet the standard of energy instruction by examples of questions, etc.</p>

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