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Association between Periodontal Status during Pregnancy and Risk of Low Birth Weight: An Observational Study

DOI
  • SAKAMOTO Harumi
    Department of Hygiene and Oral Health Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School Medical Technology, Tokushima University Hospital
  • HINODE Daisuke
    Department of Hygiene and Oral Health Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School Dental Hygiene Section, Tokushima University Hospital
  • TAKEKAWA Kaori
    Medical Technology, Tokushima University Hospital
  • MASUGI Sachie
    Medical Technology, Tokushima University Hospital
  • TAKAHASHI Yuko
    Medical Technology, Tokushima University Hospital
  • SOGAWA Yuka
    Department of Hygiene and Oral Health Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School Medical Technology, Tokushima University Hospital Dental Hygiene Section, Tokushima University Hospital
  • MORIYAMA Satomi
    Department of Hygiene and Oral Health Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School Medical Technology, Tokushima University Hospital
  • DOI Tokiko
    Department of Hygiene and Oral Health Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School
  • NAKAE Hiromi
    Department of Hygiene and Oral Health Science, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School
  • YOKOYAMA Masaaki
    Yokoyama Dental Clinic
  • TAMATANI Kanako
    Dental Hygiene Section, Tokushima University Hospital
  • YOSHIOKA Masami
    Dental Hygiene Section, Tokushima University Hospital Department of Oral Health Science and Social Welfare, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School
  • KAWANO Fumiaki
    Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School

Bibliographic Information

Other Title
  • 妊娠期の歯周状態と低体重児出産のリスクに関する観察研究
  • ニンシンキ ノ シシュウ ジョウタイ ト テイタイジュウジ シュッサン ノ リスク ニ カンスル カンサツ ケンキュウ

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Abstract

It has been demonstrated that periodontal disease in pregnant women is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, there have been few studies examining this relationship in Japan. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the relationship between the periodontal status of pregnant women and a low birth weight. The study included 190 pregnant woman who had been referred to Tokushima University Hospital. Participants received an oral health examination and completed questionnaires about their health behaviors and knowledge of oral health. The inclusion criterion was an age of 25 to 34 years, to avoid age-related bias. Those smoking during pregnancy, with multiple births, or an unknown delivery status were excluded. Among the 85 subjects analyzed, 61 women (71.8%) reported complaints or discomfort related to their oral cavity. A total of 29 women (34.1%) had periodontal pockets (≥4 mm) and were assigned a Community Periodontal Index (CPI) of 3. No pregnant woman was evaluated as CPI=4. We divided participants into two groups: CPI=0,1,2 or CPI=3. A significant difference in qualitative categories was observed among participants with babies with a low birth weight, knowledge about periodontal disease, and those who alternated their favorite foods (chi squared test, p<0.05). In addition, we examined the relationship between the oral health status of the pregnant women and a low birth weight. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that CPI=3 (OR=6.62, 95% CI: 1.32–33.36; p=0.02) and complaints or discomfort related to the oral cavity (OR=5.67, 95% CI: 1.17–27.49; p=0.03) were significantly correlated with a low birth weight. These results indicate that there is an association between the periodontal status during pregnancy and risk of a low birth weight. These findings should be considered important by dental professionals when giving oral health guidance to pregnant women.

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